Roti: Homemade Indian Flatbread

Roti Roti: Roti, Phulka, or Chapati stands as a ubiquitous Indian flatbread, a daily essential crafted in households across the country. This recipe for unleavened flatbread relies on simple ingredients – whole wheat flour, ghee, salt, and water.


  • Preparation Time: 10 minutes
  • Cooking Time: 30 minutes
  • Resting Time: 30 minutes
  • Total Time: 1 hour 10 minutes
  • Cuisine: Indian
  • Course: Main Course
  • Diet: Vegan, Vegetarian
  • Difficulty Level: Moderate


  1. 3 cups whole wheat flour or atta (about 360 grams)
  2. 1 to 1.25 cups water (adjust as needed)
  3. 1 teaspoon salt (optional)
  4. 1 to 2 tablespoons oil or ghee (optional)

Also Read: Fruit Cream


Kneading Roti Dough:

  1. Take whole wheat flour (atta) in a bowl. If your flour contains a lot of bran, sift it along with salt. Add a bit of water and oil or ghee to start mixing.
  2. Gradually add water to the dough, kneading it thoroughly.
  3. Continue kneading, adding water as necessary, until the dough is pliable, smooth, and soft. Ensure it's not too sticky or hard.
  4. Divide the dough into small to medium-sized balls, rolling them in your palms to smoothen.
  5. Flatten each ball and sprinkle some whole wheat flour on it or dust the rolling board with flour.

Making Phulka:

  1. Heat a tawa (griddle) on the gas stove.
  2. Roll out each dough ball into a flat round circle.
  3. Place the rolled dough on the hot tawa.
  4. Cook one side until it's about one-fourth cooked, then flip and cook the other side until brown spots appear.
  5. Hold the roti over direct flame until it puffs up.
  6. Remove from heat and apply ghee or oil to keep them soft.
  7. Serve hot or store in a container to keep warm.

Making Roti on Tawa:

  1. Place the rolled roti dough on a hot tawa or skillet over medium-high to high heat.
  2. Air pockets will start forming on the surface.
  3. Roast for about 30 seconds, then flip and roast the second side for about a minute.
  4. Press the partially cooked roti with a folded cotton kitchen napkin or spatula to help it puff up.
  5. Cook until both sides are cooked evenly.

Making Chapati:

  1. Cook the rolled roti dough on a hot tawa or skillet until air pockets form.
  2. Spread oil on one side while the second side cooks.
  3. Cook until both sides are well roasted with brown spots.
  4. Spread oil on the cooked side and roast the first side again briefly.
  5. Transfer to a container and keep covered.

Serving and Storing Suggestions:

  1. Serve with Indian curries, vegetables, or lentils.
  2. Store leftover dough in an airtight container for 1 to 2 days.
  3. Store flatbreads in a covered container to keep them soft.
  4. Adding oil or ghee to the dough enhances softness.
  5. Ensure thorough kneading for a smooth dough.
  6. Avoid cooking on low heat to prevent crispiness.
  7. This recipe can be scaled for larger or smaller batches.

Also Read: Khubani Ka Meetha

Additional Notes:

  • If using wheat flour without "atta" labeling, sift to remove bran.
  • Use neutral-flavored oils like sunflower, avocado, or grapeseed.
  • Nutritional information provided is approximate for one roti made with sunflower oil and no additional oil or ghee.

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